On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) into law. This comprehensive health care reform legislation sought to expand health care coverage to millions of Americans, control health care costs, and improve the overall quality of the health care system. The ACA required that all US citizens and legal residents have qualifying health insurance by 2014. In this paper we give readers a brief overview of the effects of the ACA based on recent research. We then turn our attention to the possibility of using the ACA expansion to answer important underlying questions, such as: To what extent does the holding of insurance lead to improvements in access to care? To what extent does the holding of coverage lead to improvements in health? In mental health? Are there likely general equilibrium effects on labor force participation, hours worked, employment setting, and indeed even the probability of marrying? By necessity, researchers’ ability to answer these questions depends on the availability of data, so we discuss current and potential data sources relevant for answering these questions. We also look to what has been studied about the health reform in Massachusetts and early Medicaid expansions to speculate what we can expect to learn about the effects of the ACA on these outcomes in the future.