The grammatical status of final particles in spoken English, such as then , though , anyway , and but , is undefined, as the various labels used in the literature (e.g. connectors , linking adverbials , conjuncts ) show. This indeterminacy derives from the functional diversity of these particles. They not only link units of (spoken) discourse, but may also create a link between a discourse unit and an implied proposition; they are used to express subjective meanings and to modify illocutionary force. As such particles represent a borderline case between grammar and pragmatics, they invite discussion of the usefulness of a strict grammar-pragmatics divide and suggest a conception of grammar that goes beyond the level of “well-formed” sentences. A distinction will be made between “microgrammar”, which refers to sentence-internal strucural relations, and “macrogrammar”, referring to structural relations beyond isolated sentences. Final particles are analyzed as grammatical elements on the macrogrammatical level.