Alterations in topography due to the construction of transport infrastructure and industrial development are the results of rather complex processes. The impact of transport constructions upsetting (topographic) equilibrium is manifested in a relatively narrow strip, and, mostly, through producing abnormally steep slopes, in reducing relief stability. The earthworks for transport routes are themselves also landscape-forming factors whereas in the case of industrial developments, planation is usually mentioned. Topographic changes related to the construction of transport infrastructure and industrial development are discussed historically in this chapter. Among the direct impacts of the first are those related to the construction of Roman and Medieval roads, hollow roads in loess, public roads, motorways, railways, canals, tunnels and airports; while of the second are those of early mining and metallurgy, cellars, sludge reservoirs, slag cones and fly-ash reservoirs, cooling ponds, industrial parks, shopping centres and waste disposal sites. Of the indirect ones, an introduction is given to impacts of surface sealing, changes in runoff, the ‘waterfall effect,’ as well as to environmental impacts under permafrost conditions.