The Pahnavar calcic Fe-bearing skarn zone is located in the Eastern Azarbaijan (NW Iran). This skarn zone occurs along the contact between Upper Cretaceous impure carbonates and an Oligocene granodioritic batholith. The skarnification process can be categorized into two discrete stages: prograde and retrograde. The prograde stage began immediately after the initial emplacement of the granodioritic magma into the enclosing impure carbonate rocks. The effect of heat flow from the batholith caused the enclosing rocks to become isochemically marmorized in the pure limestone layers and bimetasomatized (skarnoids) in the impure clay-rich carbonates. Segregation and evolution of an aqueous phase from the magma that infiltrated to the marbles and skarnoids through fractures and micro-fractures took place during the emplacement of magma. The influx of Fe, Si and Mg from the granodiorite to the skarnoids and marbles led to the crystallization of anhydrous calc-silicates (garnet and pyroxene). The retrograde stage can be divided, in turn, into two distinct sub-stages. During earliest sub-stage, the previously formed skarn assemblages were affected by intense hydro-fracturing; in addition, Cu, Pb, Zn, along with H2S and CO2 were added. Consequently, hydrous calc-silicates (epidote and tremolite-actinolite), sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and sphalerite), oxides (magnetite and hematite) and carbonates (calcite) deposited the anhydrous calc-silicates. The late-retrograde sub-stage was due the incursion of colder oxidizing fluids into the skarn system, causing the alteration of the previously formed calc-silicate assemblages and the development of fine-grained aggregates of chlorite, illite, kaolinite, hematite and calcite. The lack of wollastonite in the mineral assemblage, along with the garnet-clinopyroxene paragenesis, suggests that the prograde stage formed under temperature and fO2 conditions of 430–550°C and 10−26–10−23, respectively.