Seismic method is a major approach for detecting the seismic geological features ahead of the tunnel, understanding the distribution of unfavorable geology, and ensuring the safety of tunnel construction. Observation system is the key for seismic detection, many studies have been conducted to optimize the observation system; however, most of them focused on the surface seismic investigation and numerical simulation rather than in tunnel field environment (limited aperture and full space environment). How to obtain better wavefield information with limited observation aperture is a great challenge. In this study numerical simulation and instrumental techniques (GPR, DC, etc.) were implemented to further check the result of seismic detection at the 1# tailrace tunnel at the Wudongde hydropower station. In the field case, observation detectors were arranged spatially in the tunnel and source points were placed in four ways: linearly along a single side, on the tunnel face, in front of the detectors, and behind the detectors. Then, after data acquisition, the data processing is conducted to carry out the migration results. The imaging results indicate that the observation system with sources and detectors in liner arrangement (with equal interval) helps to suppress artifacts, further supporting the advantages of spatial observation system with liner observation line (detectors). Moreover, the study provides suggestions for geological prospecting in similar tunnel projects.