Currently, information processing of tunnel engineering has mainly adopted conventional mathematical statistics-based methods. Moreover, some nonlinear processing methods are implemented to derive more insights, even though the degree of research is not deep enough. In the research, the rock mechanics test is carried out by drilling a method and taking samples in situ according to the construction technology of tunnels in complex geological conditions and implementing computer information-based methods. Also, rock mechanics tests are carried out in the excavation test area of the flat tunnel. Based on the tests using physical properties, such as deformation, tensile, uniaxial compression, triaxial compression, and longitudinal wave velocity, the physical and mechanical characteristics of the surrounding rock in the tunnel area are comprehensively evaluated, and the stability of the tunnel rock mass is assessed to devise convenient conditions for the subsequent research of the complex geological tunnels based on green excavation. The particle density of sandy mudstone, the bulk density, the porosity, and the natural water content are represented by 2.67 ± 0.61 g/cm 3 , 2.56 ± 1.42 g/cm 3 , 7.45%, and 2.86%, respectively, in terms of physical characteristics. These indicate that the sandy mudstone structure is relatively loose, with relatively large pores, micro-fractures, and a high degree of natural water content. The representative deformation test curve of the rock block shows that the ratio of deformation modulus to the compressive strength of the rock block is 650 on average, and Poisson’s ratio ranges from 0.21 to 0.38. These show that sandy mudstone has deformation properties after compression. The tensile strength of sandy mudstone, the shear strength, and c are represented by 1.25 ± 0.23 MPa, f = 1.32, and = 2.35 MPa, respectively. The stated test results can provide a scientific basis for selecting engineering design and its construction parameters in similar areas. In addition, the measurement results show that the surrounding rock will gradually increase, and the tunnel space will gradually become shorter with the increase of buried depth when the gravity stress field occurs. The linear elastic displacement of soft rock is smaller than that of elastic–plastic analysis, and the deeper the tunnel is buried, the larger the displacement difference would be. Therefore, establishing a stable and orderly monitoring and detection system could fully understand the intrinsic law between surrounding rock stress release and surrounding rock pressure and obtain accurate monitoring and measured data to evaluate the grading management standard of a tunnel at the ultimate displacement. In a word, this research provides a feasible idea to study the decision process of green excavation and deformation control technology of tunnels in complex strata.