Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have found a variety of applications in numerous industrial, medical, and environmental fields s, attributable to recent advances in the nanotechnology field. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) have gained importance as metal oxide NPs due to their potential in various fields, particularly nanomedicine and other biomedicine fields. Several studies have confirmed that NPs produced via the biosynthesis route using natural resources have significant advantages such as fewer toxic contaminants, less subsequent complex chemical synthesis, environmental friendliness, cost-effectiveness, and stability when compared to NPs produced by conventional methods, and its production with controlled shapes and sizes. Therefore, considerable effort is being expended to implement biological synthesis methods with these proven advantages. TiO 2 -NPs can be made using a variety of biological, chemical, and physical methods. Physicochemical methods are costly, emit high levels of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere, and consume a lot of energy. On the other hand, the biological approach is an environmentally safe, cost-effective, dependable, convenient, and easy way to synthesize TiO 2 -NPs. In this review, the bio-mediated synthesis, as well as various biomedical applications of TiO 2 -NPs, were discussed.