Since many of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications contain oxygen-containing heterocyclic molecules, they have been discovered to be quite important. Moreover, over the past 10 years, the field of reusable nanocatalysts has expanded quickly. Therefore, the development of nanotechnology has led to a wide range of applications for nanocatalysis in the synthesis of heterocyclic molecules. The domains of organic chemistry and pharmaceuticals have recently shown a great deal of interest in nanocatalyzed organic processes. Such nanocatalysts enable non-toxic, simpler, environmentally friendly, and more affordable synthetic processes that give only the most desirable compounds in higher quantities and provide simple catalyst separation. As a result of their efficient methods for separating catalysts and products, nanocatalysts were chosen over other catalysts for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. This review emphasized the preparation of nanocatalysts, synthetic approaches, and recycling studies of highly excited catalytic systems employed for the synthesis of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds.