Background Sirtuin1 is a regulator of oxidative stress involved in the management of diabetes complications. Due to the beneficial effects of swimming training in diabetes, this study aimed to investigate the effects of swimming training on pancreatic Sirtuin1, oxidative stress and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic male rats. Materials and methods Twenty-eight male Wistar rats (200–250 g) were randomly divided into four groups: control, diabetic, swim trained and swim trained diabetic rats (n = 7). Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection [35/kg intraperitoneally]. After 72 hours, animals with blood glucose levels ≥300 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Seven days after the induction of diabetes, animals in the exercise groups were subjected to swimming training (60 min/daily, 5 days/week) for 12 weeks. At the end of the intervention, the animals were anesthetized, and tissue/blood samples were prepared for measurements of metabolic parameters, albumin, the Sitruin1 gene and its protein expression levels, oxidative stress and histological study. Results This study indicated that the diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) in pancreatic Sitruin1 gene and its protein expression levels, antioxidant enzymes, serum albumin, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, but a significant increase (p < 0.01) in malondialdehyde level. Swimming training resulted in a considerable improvement (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) in pancreatic Sitruin1 gene and its protein expression levels, antioxidant enzymes, serum levels of albumin and metabolic parameters. In addition, histological findings indicated the beta-cells conservation. Conclusions This study suggested that pancreatic Sitruin1 may be a promising therapeutic target for diabetic complications.