Conducting experimental studies on the impact compressive mechanical properties of rock under the high temperature environment is of both theoretical value and practical significance to understanding the relationship between the rock under the effect of impact loads and the high temperature environment. Based on the Φ100 mm SHPB and the self-developed Φ100 mm high-temperature SHPB test devices, the impact compressive tests on the sandstone, whether cooling after high temperatures or under real-time high temperatures are carried out. As the test results indicate that since the two high-temperature ways of loading are different from each other, the impact compressive properties of sandstone, after as well as under high temperatures, show different variations along with changes in temperature. Under the effect of the same impact loading rate, there exists a clear critical temperature range in the impact compressive mechanical properties of sandstone after high temperature, and, near the critical temperature, there occurs a significant mutation in the impact compressive mechanical properties. Under high temperatures, however, the impact compressive mechanical properties follow an overall continuity of change except that there are slight fluctuations at individual temperatures.