Poststructuralism, following Nietzsche, has attempted to annihilate the distinction between fact and fiction. Challenging the poststructuralist approach, the present paper defends this distinction with a view to the study of history. From the perspective of a history of concepts, panfictionalist tendencies are analysed and it is shown that these tendencies are based on an intermingling of fictionality with narrative or literary elements. In contrast to methodological attempts within the study of history, which one-sidedly rely on scientism, we emphasize the role of literary-narrative forms of representation. When we look at commonalities between literature and historiography, this is not meant to impute, in a deconstructionist vein, a fictionalist ‚complicity‘ to history. On the contrary, our aim is to make fruitful the cognitive value of literature, in the sense of its capacity to presentation, for the purpose of historical cognition.