Background: Adolescence is the important period in human life. It is an essential prerequisite for playing social roles. Objective: The current study conducted a review on the concept, dimensions, and influential factors on health and risk taking, instruments and measurements of high-risk behaviors, risk factors, and high-risk behavior protective factors through adolescent perspectives. Methods: This literature review was conducted by electronic searching and library study on health and adolescents using Wiley Interscience, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Springer (1990–2012). The keywords for searching data collection sources included health, youth, young, adolescents, risk behaviors, risk taking, related factors, protective factors, risk factors, adolescent perspectives, quantitative study, qualitative study, measurement, and instrument. Results: This literature review led to the arrangement of subjects in nine general categories titled definition of health concept and its dimensions, adolescents and health in adolescence, risk taking in adolescence and its measuring tools, gender differences in adolescence health and risk taking, adolescents’ health and relationships, socioeconomic conditions and health, adolescents and psychiatric health, religion, and health, educational facilities and health, non-governmental organizations and their role in adolescents’ health. What has been achieved from a review of these articles is that several personal, social, and family factors are associated with health and risk taking in adolescents. Conclusion: Generally, adolescents cared more about the psychosocial aspects of health than the physical dimensions. They also considered factors such as independence, communication, socioeconomic conditions, mental health, religion, and educational facilities synonymous with the concept of health. Therefore, in formulation and implementation of health promotion programs for adolescents, the concept of health and its various dimensions must be considered from adolescent perspectives.