Introduction Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes, which causes many problems for diabetic patients. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of neuropathy among type 1 diabetic adolescents by systematic review and meta-analysis. Materials and methods This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis, which reviewed articles published from 2001 to September 1, 2018. The search process was carried out in the Google Scholar search engine and domestic and international databases such as Magiran, SID, Iranmedex, IranDoc, Medlib, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Springer, Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, Ebsco and Cochrane using Persian and English keywords based on MESH conformity. All the research steps were carried out by two members of the research team who were familiar with systematic reviews and meta-analysis data, using the software CMA. Analysis of meta-regression and the use of a random effects model were introduced and analyzed. Findings When a systematic search was carried out on the reviewed articles, five of them were included in the meta-analysis phase. The sample size was 484, and the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in type 1 diabetic patients was 28.2% [confidence interval (CI) = 19.5–39.1]. The findings of the meta-regression analysis showed that the DPN prevalence rate decreased with increasing age (Q = 5.77 p = 0.016), and the results of more recent studies showed an increase in the DPN incidence rate (Q = 20.62, p < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of the present study revealed that although the prevalence of neuropathy in diabetic adolescents was not high, the prevalence was significant. Considering the increasing prevalence of diabetes and its impact on the health status of patients, appropriate interventions should be conducted to prevent diabetes and subsequent diabetic neuropathy.