TiO 2 nanotubes were synthesized at different hydrothermal temperatures: 110 °C, 130 °C, 150 °C, and 180 °C. The calcination of the titanate precursors at various temperatures governs TiO 2 nanotube formation; the calcination temperatures were 300 °C, 500 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C. It was observed that with the sample prepared at 130 °C and calcined at 500 °C only anatase formed, but with the sample calcined at 800 °C, both anatase and rutile formed. The obtained TiO 2 nanotubes were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis suggests that the TiO 2 nanotubes prepared at a hydrothermal temperature of 130 °C and calcined at 500 °C have the highest surface area of 316.2 m 2 g −1 of all samples. The synthesized TiO 2 nanotubes were used as photocatalysts in the removal of the organic dye methylene blue from aqueous solution by UV irradiation.