In order to develop novel materials based on rare earth ( RE ) boride and/or transition metals, phase equilibria and thermodynamic information of the RE –B based alloys are indispensable. On the basis of experimental phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties, thermodynamic assessments of the RE –B ( RE = La, Sm, Gd and Tb) binary systems were carried out by the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagram) method. Self-consistent parameters of the RE –B ( RE = La, Sm, Gd and Tb) binary systems were obtained, which can be used to reproduce well the experimental data. Furthermore, in combination with the previous assessments of the RE –B binary systems in the literature, phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the RE –B ( RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Lu) binary systems are discussed systematically. The tendency of phase equilibria and thermodynamic information as a function of RE atomic number is demonstrated. In general, the enthalpy of mixing of liquid RE –B alloys and the enthalpy of formation of the RE –B intermetallic compounds become more and more negative with the increase in RE atomic number (except for La, Ce, Pr and Nd), while the phase transition temperatures for the RE –B intermetallic compounds increase gradually.