Renewable fuel is gaining more attention in the current energy crisis, and biomass is one of the potential sources of producing renewable fuel. The objective of the present research is to analyze the pyrolysis and kinetic behavior of neem seed biomass. Pyrolysis and kinetic behavior of neem seed were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at different heating rates, viz. 5, 10, 15, and 20 K min −1 . The kinetic study was conducted on the neem seed using various kinetic models such as Friedman, Kissinger, Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO), and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS). Thermodynamic analysis was carried out using the data extracted from the TGA curves. The results showed that the neem seed degraded in three stages, stage I: <100 °C, stage II: 100–550 °C, and stage III: >550 °C. A maximum mass loss of 73.14 % occurred at stage II owing to the loss of cellulose and hemicellulose. The activation energy determined by Friedman, KAS, and FWO models was 5.11–18.64, 10.62–57.41, and 13.77–61.51 kJ mol −1 , respectively. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the pyrolysis of neem seed was an endothermic and spontaneous process. Moreover, the previously reported average activation energy required for the pyrolysis of various seeds and shells was compared with the present study and concluded that the variation in activation energy of neem seed adheres to the outcomes reported earlier.