In this current study, the transient numerical calculations using CFD code are carried out under different outlet impeller diameters for the flow field within a centrifugal pump under single-phase and cavitation conditions. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are carried out on all of these results in order to better understand the flow structure within a centrifugal pump. Also, the investigations using different outlet impeller diameters configurations relating to the static pressure, velocity magnitude, vapour volume fraction variations, as well as pressure fluctuations in both time and frequency domain at the impeller and volute of the pump are analysed. Velocity and static pressure variations of the pump under different outlet impeller diameters range (200, 210 and 220 mm) are investigated. Reliable model is developed and validated, at various pump operating conditions, to analyse the characteristics of pressure fluctuations in both time and frequency domain. Cavitation occurrence, under different outlet impeller diameters and flow rates, are detected and correlated, using a CFD model (volume fraction distributions). Based on the developed model’s findings, at the set operating conditions ranges, the distribution and impact (cavitation and head-wises) of both the pressure and velocity are analysed. The average pressure fluctuation in the volute for do = 210 mm is higher than for do = 200 mm by about 6.74%, also the maximum pressure fluctuation for do = 220 mm is higher than for do = 210 mm by around 7.4%. Furthermore, the maximum pressure fluctuation in the impeller for do = 210 mm is higher than for do = 200 mm by 12.48%, also for do = 220 mm is higher than for do = 210 mm by 10.8%. The developed CFD models are proved valuable tools in identifying and optimizing the pump performance and characterization. The head for when do = 220 mm is higher than for when do = 200 mm under both single-phase and cavitation conditions by around 14.13% and 14.69%. The maximum pressure fluctuation for do = 200 mm is lower than for do = 210 mm by 41.58%. Furthermore, the maximum pressure fluctuation at the impeller for do = 220 mm is higher than the two models. There is a small clearance between the impeller and the volute for this model, leading to the pressure fluctuation amplitudes being higher than the other above models.