As stated by World Health Organization (WHO) report, 246 million individuals have suffered with diabetes disease over worldwide and it is anticipated that by 2025 this estimation can cross 380 million. So, the proper and quick diagnosis of this disease is turned into a significant challenge for the machine learning researchers. This paper aims to design a robust model for diagnosis of diabetes using a hybrid approach of Chaotic-Jaya (CJaya) algorithm with Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), which is named as CJaya-ELM. In this paper, Jaya algorithm with Chaotic learning approach is used to optimize the random parameters of ELM classifier. Here, to assess the efficacy of the designed model, Pima Indian diabetes dataset is considered. Here, the designed model CJaya-ELM, has been compared with basic ELM, Teaching Learning Based Optimization algorithm (TLBO) optimized ELM (TLBO-ELM), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Jaya algorithm optimized MLP (Jaya-MLP), TLBO algorithm optimized MLP (TLBO-MLP) and CJaya algorithm optimized MLP models. CJaya-ELM model resulted in the highest testing accuracy of 0.9687, sensitivity of 1, specificity of 0.9688 with 0.9782 area under curve (AUC) value. Results reveal that CJaya-ELM model effectively classifies both the positive and negative samples of Pima and outperforms the competitors.