A study of the elements that are known to associate with petroleum hydrocarbon formation found in Nigerian crude oil and bitumen has been carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). This study on the fossil fuels is crucial from environmental, exploration, exploitation and processing points of view. The concentrations of the following eight elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S, V and Zn) were determined and the results were interpreted using statistical analyses. The results showed that S has the highest mean value (9.04 ± 0.74 mg/kg) in the crude oil and Fe has the highest mean value (253.78 ± 235.20 mg/kg) in the bitumen, while Mn has least mean concentrations of (0.08 ± 0.02 mg/kg) and (4.37 ± 3.88 mg/kg) in the two Nigerian fossil fuels, respectively. The results of this study show that the average V/Ni ratio (1.12) of the analyzed bitumen is higher than the value (0.15) for the crude oil. It is observed from the results that the average V/Ni and V/ V+Ni ratios obtained in this study for Nigerian crude oil and bitumen are in close agreement with what was obtained by some other workers. The results of the cross plot analysis of the Nigerian crude oil versus bitumen shows moderate positive inter-elemental correlation (R 2 = 0.50), establishing relationship between the two Nigerian fossil fuels. The results of inter-elemental clustering in crude oil indicate two major groups and 5 subgroups that are fairly well correlated, while the results of inter-elemental clustering in the bitumen also show two major groups but three sub-groups that are fairly well correlated. The inter-elemental correlations indicate chemical affinity and/or similar sources.