The maltene component of Nigerian crude oils was analyzed with a view to ascertaining its characteristics and assess the environmental health implications of its uses. Crude oils collected from 3 different oil fields (Belema, Imo and Eket) were deasphaltened using n-pentane, analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (model Varian 71 O-ES ICP) for the elemental content, a Perkin Elmer Model spectrum 100 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) to identify the organics, while Gamma counting equipment consisting of a calibrated Canberra vertical high-purity germanium (HPGe) coaxial detector was used for radionuclide content measurement. Chromium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S, V and Zn levels were determined and were lower in the maltene than the crude oil. This was confirmed by their T-test values. Strong and positive correlations (R 2 = 0.50) existed between the maltene and crude oil. Elemental clustering result indicated two major groups – (Cu, Mn, Cr, V, Zn, Fe and Ni) and (S) and was corroborated by Principal component analysis result. The FT-IR analysis results peaks indicated the presence of mixtures of alkanes, aromatic rings, ketones, organic sulphoxides, amines and heteroaromatic compounds. The radionuclides identified belonged to the decay series headed by 238 U and 232 Th as well as the non-series 40 K. The maltene component was found to contain permissible levels of the radionuclides with mean activity values of 18.13±2.01, 2.31±0.66 and 4.35±2.71 Bq/kg respectively. The absorbed dose rate due to the radionuclides in the samples gave an average value of 4.02 nGy/h which was lower than the UNSCEAR standard (60 nGy/h). The levels of radiological hazard to the environment and threat to human health from gamma radiation by the maltene are low, as the hazard indices are below the recommended standards. However, long exposure to the harmful smoke generated from burning of maltene may pose an intrinsic health hazard.