Aim: To determine the effect of maternal cigarette smoking on cord blood concentrations of E3, hPL, β-hCG, FSH, LH, and cortisol. Methods: Hormone concentrations were measured in term neonates of 100 smoking and 100 non-smoking mothers. Results: The median E3, hPL, β-hCG, FSH, LH and cortisol cord blood concentrations in the non-smoking mothers' offspring were 212 ng/mL, 2.00 μg/mL, 57.5 mIU/mL, 0.10 mIU/mL, 0.20 mIU/mL, and 14.3 μg/mL, respectively; in the smoking they were 163, 1.39, 45.4, 0.10, 0.20, and 25.1, respectively (P=0.008, 0.004, 0.037, 0.498, 0.286, 0.004, respectively). There was a significant but poor negative correlation between number of cigarettes/day and E3 (r=−0.163, P=0.021), hPL (r=−0.191, P=0.007), and β-hCG (r=−0.143, P=0.044), whereas the correlation with cortisol was positive (r=0.259, P<0.0001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that maternal smoking is a determinant of cord blood E3, hPL, β-hCG, FSH, and cortisol concentrations. Conclusions: Tobacco smoking is associated with a reduction in cord blood E3, hPL, and β-hCG concentrations, whereas it is associated with increased cortisol concentrations. The disturbed endocrine equilibrium of the fetus induced by tobacco smoking could have adverse consequences on the fetus and child since fetal brain is a target organ for hormonal actions.