Objective To assess the anticoagulant therapy for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) in China and to offer the rationale for establishing reasonable strategies to improve the prognosis of NSTE-ACS. Methods A total of 1,502 patients with NSTE-ACS were recruited from 28 third-grade hospitals distributed in 14 provinces and cities in China from December 2009 to December 2011. The strategies for diagnosis and treatment, decided by each hospital respectively, were used for further analysis and comparison of medication, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and end points for efficacy and safety assessment at 9 and 30 days following PCI. Results A lower incidence rate ( P < 0.05) was noted for efficacy and safety in patients with unstable angina (UA) than those with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTE-MI). The prescription rate of unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux, PCI, and single medication was 0.61%, 66.42%, 30.61%, 69.64%, and 70.74%, respectively. Conclusion Compared with NSTE-MI, UA is featured with better prognosis, less severity, and different outcome. However, in clinical practice, the therapies for NSTE-MI and UA show no differences, which deserves great attention. In China, the most common anticoagulant therapies for NSTE-ACS are single medication, mainly based on LMWH and PCI.