Objectives To estimate the lifetime treatment costs of patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection-related diseases in China and to provide cost estimates for the economic evaluation of HPV intervention strategies. Methods We extracted real-world hospital data from 2012 to 2019 and screened for subjects who met the criteria of clinical diagnosis of HPV-related diseases to obtain country-specific inputs into a Markov decision model. The model simulated lifetime treatment costs for HPV from the perspective of a national payer. A 5% discount rate was applied. Costs were converted and inflated to 2020 US dollars (USD) Results Using 2021 as the base year, the lifetime costs per patient for carcinoma in situ, local metastasis, and distant metastasis cervical cancer are $24,208 (95%CI: 18,793–30,897), $19,562 (95%CI: 14,456–25,567), and $17,599 (95%CI: 10,604–25,807), respectively. For carcinoma in situ, local metastasis, and distant metastasis vaginal cancer, the lifetime costs are $17,593 (95%CI: 14,962–23,596), $17,120 (95%CI: 13,215–22,417), and $22,411 (95%CI: 12,172–22,249), respectively. The base-case lifetime cost per patient for different stages of vulvar cancer/penile cancer/anal cancer/oral cancer/oropharyngeal cancer/laryngeal cancer falls within $17,120–$58,236. Conclusions Using real-world data, we calculated lifetime treatment costs of HPV-related cancer in China and found that the lifetime cost for patients exceeded $17,000 for various stages of disease. The national burden of HPV-related disease could be significantly reduced by eliminating HPV infection.