Deer mice (genus Peromyscus ) are among the commonest small mammals in the Nearctic zoogeographic region. Nevertheless, systematic relationships are only partially settled and numerous taxonomic questions await resolution. For instance, researchers have found that some members of the Peromyscus truei species group contain high levels of genetic divergence that could indicate the presence of cryptic species. We analyzed the systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the P. truei group using new and previously published mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Our analyses verify several earlier conclusions, but we also detected new clades that deserve recognition. Considering their mitochondrial distinctiveness, allopatric ranges, and previously reported molecular, biochemical, chromosomal, morphological, and ecological differences, we elevate three previously described taxa to species. We support the recognition of two subgroupings. The first comprises P. gratus , P. truei , and possibly P. cf. martirensis and P. cf. zapotecae . The second contains to P. amplus , P. attwateri , P. collinus , P. difficilis , P. felipensis , P. laceianus , P. nasutus , P. ochraventer , and P. pectoralis. Placement of P. bullatus will likely remain unknown until genetic data are available. Further research could improve our understanding of the evolutionary history of Peromyscus , but in some cases taxonomic issues must be resolved first.