Today, in the modern world, people are often exposed to electromagnetic waves, which can have undesirable effects on cell components that lead to differentiation and abnormalities in cell proliferation, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, chromosomal abnormalities, cancers, and birth defects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of electromagnetic waves on fetal and childhood abnormalities. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched on 1 January 2023. The Cochran’s Q -test and I 2 statistics were applied to assess heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR), standardized mean difference (SMD), and mean difference for different outcomes, and a meta-regression method was utilized to investigate the factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. A total of 14 studies were included in the analysis, and the outcomes investigated were: change in gene expression, oxidant parameters, antioxidant parameters, and DNA damage parameters in the umbilical cord blood of the fetus and fetal developmental disorders, cancers, and childhood development disorders. Totally, the events of fetal and childhood abnormalities were more common in parents who have been exposed to EMFs compared to those who have not (SMD and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 [0.15–0.35]; I 2 , 91%). Moreover, fetal developmental disorders (OR, 1.34; CI, 1.17–1.52; I 2 , 0%); cancer (OR, 1.14; CI, 1.05–1.23; I 2 , 60.1%); childhood development disorders (OR, 2.10; CI, 1.00–3.21; I 2 , 0%); changes in gene expression (mean difference [MD], 1.02; CI, 0.67–1.37; I 2 , 93%); oxidant parameters (MD, 0.94; CI, 0.70–1.18; I 2 , 61.3%); and DNA damage parameters (MD, 1.01; CI, 0.17–1.86; I 2 , 91.6%) in parents who have been exposed to EMFs were more than those in parents who have not. According to meta-regression, publication year has a significant effect on heterogeneity (coefficient: 0.033; 0.009–0.057). Maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, due to the high level of stem cells and their high sensitivity to this radiation, the biochemical parameters of the umbilical cord blood examined was shown increased oxidative stress reactions, changes in protein gene expression, DNA damage, and increased embryonic abnormalities. In addition, parental exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation can lead to the enhancement of different cell-based cancers and developmental disorders such as speech problems in childhood.