Xenobiotic receptors are traditionally defined as xenobiotic chemical-sensing receptors, the activation of which transcriptionally regulates the expression of enzymes and transporters involved in the metabolism and disposition of xenobiotics. Emerging evidence suggests that “xenobiotic receptors” also have diverse endobiotic functions, including their effects on lipid metabolism and energy metabolism. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, stroke, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Understanding the molecular mechanism by which transcriptional factors, including the xenobiotic receptors, regulate lipid homeostasis will help to develop preventive and therapeutic approaches. This review describes recent advances in our understanding the atypical roles of three xenobiotic receptors: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), in metabolic disorders, with a particular focus on their effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Collectively, the literatures suggest the potential values of AhR, PXR and CAR as therapeutic targets for the treatment of NAFLD, NASH, obesity and diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.