To determine the definition, foundation, practice, and development of evidence-based rehabilitation medicine (EBRM) and point out the development direction for EBRM. Retrieve the database of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, and China science and technology journal database (CSTJ). The search was conducted from the establishment of the database to June 2023. The key words are “rehabilitation medicine and evidence based” in Chinese and English. After reading the abstract or full text of the literature, a summary analysis is conducted to determine the definition, foundation, practice, and development of EBRM. A total of 127 articles were included. The development of 14 sub majors in EBRM are not balanced, evidence-based musculoskeletal rehabilitation medicine (EBMRM) (31 articles, mainly focuses on osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and musculoskeletal pain), evidence-based neurorehabilitation medicine (EBNM) (34 articles, mainly concentrated in stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury) and evidence-based education rehabilitation medicine (EBEDRM) (17 articles, mainly focuses on educational methodology), evidence-based nursing rehabilitation medicine (EBNRM) (2 articles), evidence-based engineering rehabilitation medicine (EBENRM) (7 articles), evidence-based traditional Chinese rehabilitation medicine (EBTCRM) (3 articles), evidence-based internal rehabilitation medicine (EBIRM) (11 articles), evidence-based intensive care rehabilitation medicine (EBICRM) (4 articles), evidence-based oncology rehabilitation medicine (EBORM) (6 articles), evidence-based physical therapy medicine (EBPTM) (3 articles), evidence-based cardiopulmonary rehabilitation medicine (EBCRM) (6 articles), evidence-based speech therapy medicine (EBSTM)/evidence-based occupation therapy medicine (EBOTM)/evidence-based geriatric rehabilitation medicine (EBGRM) (1 article). The EBMRM, EBNM and EBEDRM are relatively well developed. The development of EBNRM, EBENRM, EBTCRM, EBIRM, EBICRM, EBGRM, EBORM, EBCRM, EBPTM, EBSTM and EBOTM is relatively slow, indicating these eleven fields should be pay more attention in future.