The occurrence and mechanisms of developmental adult diseases have gradually attracted attention in recent years. Exposure of gametes and embryos to adverse environments, especially during plastic development, can alter the expression of certain tissue-specific genes, leading to increased susceptibility to certain diseases in adulthood, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neuropsychiatric, and reproductive system diseases, etc. The occurrence of chronic disease in adulthood is partly due to genetic factors, and the remaining risk is partly due to environmental-dependent epigenetic information alteration, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs. Changes in this epigenetic information potentially damage our health, which has also been supported by numerous epidemiological and animal studies in recent years. Environmental factors functionally affect embryo development through epimutation, transmitting diseases to offspring and even later generations. This review mainly elaborated on the concept of developmental origins of adult diseases, and revealed the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these events, discussed the theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of related diseases.