Experimental results referring to the influence of stress peening treatment on the metallurgical, surface and mechanical properties, especially the fatigue life of parabolic leaf springs made of two high-strength steels, 52CrMoV4 and 51CrV4, are presented. The tested leaves were manufactured under serial conditions. The microstructure, surface roughness, hardness and residual stress profiles as well as Wöhler curves are determined and assessed both in a qualitative and quantitative manner. Compressive residual stresses, increased hardness values and pronounced roughness are determined on the specimens’ stress-peened surface. The experimentally determined Wöhler curves explore the mutual influence of material, surface properties and surface roughness on fatigue behaviour and lifetime. Equivalencies of both raw materials refered to the mechanical properties achieved after the heat treatment and stress peening process are observed.