Super-resolution optical microscopy, which gives access to finer details of objects, is highly desired for fields of nanomaterial, nanobiology, nanophotonics, etc. Many efforts, including tip optimization and illumination optimization etc., have been made in both near-field and far-field super-resolution microscopy to achieve a spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit. The development of vector light fields opens up a new avenue for super-resolution optical microscopy via special illumination modes. Cylindrical vector beam (CVB) has been verified to enable resolution improvement in tip-scanning imaging, nonlinear imaging, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, subtraction imaging, superoscillation imaging, etc. This paper reviews recent advances in CVB-based super-resolution imaging. We start with an introduction of the fundamentals and properties of CVB. Next, strategies for CVB based super-resolution imaging are discussed, which are mainly implemented by tight focusing, depletion effect, plasmonic nanofocusing, and polarization matching. Then, the roadmap of super-resolution imaging with CVB illumination in the past two decades is summarized. The typical CVB-based imaging techniques in fields of both near-field and far-field microscopy are introduced, including tip-scanning imaging, nonlinear imaging, STED, subtraction imaging, and superoscillation imaging. Finally, challenges and future directions of CVB-illuminated super-resolution imaging techniques are discussed.