Metamaterials enable subwavelength tailoring of light–matter interactions, driving fundamental discoveries which fuel novel applications in areas ranging from compressed sensing to quantum engineering. Importantly, the metallic and dielectric resonators from which static metamaterials are comprised present an open architecture amenable to materials integration. Thus, incorporating responsive materials such as semiconductors, liquid crystals, phase-change materials, or quantum materials (e.g., superconductors, 2D materials, etc.) imbue metamaterials with dynamic properties, facilitating the development of active and tunable devices harboring enhanced or even entirely novel electromagnetic functionality. Ultimately, active control derives from the ability to craft the local electromagnetic fields; accomplished using a host of external stimuli to modify the electronic or optical properties of the responsive materials embedded into the active regions of the subwavelength resonators. We provide a broad overview of this frontier area of metamaterials research, introducing fundamental concepts and presenting control strategies that include electronic, optical, mechanical, thermal, and magnetic stimuli. The examples presented range from microwave to visible wavelengths, utilizing a wide range of materials to realize spatial light modulators, effective nonlinear media, on-demand optics, and polarimetric imaging as but a few examples. Often, active and tunable nanophotonic metamaterials yield an emergent electromagnetic response that is more than the sum of the parts, providing reconfigurable or real-time control of the amplitude, phase, wavevector, polarization, and frequency of light. The examples to date are impressive, setting the stage for future advances that are likely to impact holography, beyond 5G communications, imaging, and quantum sensing and transduction.