Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a new paradigm in customized manufacturing and allows the fabrication of complex optical components and metaphotonic structures that are difficult to realize via traditional methods. Conventional lithography techniques are usually limited to planar patterning, but 3D printing can allow the fabrication and integration of complex shapes or multiple parts along the out-of-plane direction. Additionally, 3D printing can allow printing on curved surfaces. Four-dimensional (4D) printing adds active, responsive functions to 3D-printed structures and provides new avenues for active, reconfigurable optical and microwave structures. This review introduces recent developments in 3D and 4D printing, with emphasis on topics that are interesting for the nanophotonics and metaphotonics communities. In this article, we have first discussed functional materials for 3D and 4D printing. Then, we have presented the various designs and applications of 3D and 4D printing in the optical, terahertz, and microwave domains. 3D printing can be ideal for customized, nonconventional optical components and complex metaphotonic structures. Furthermore, with various printable smart materials, 4D printing might provide a unique platform for active and reconfigurable structures. Therefore, 3D and 4D printing can introduce unprecedented opportunities in optics and metaphotonics and may have applications in freeform optics, integrated optical and optoelectronic devices, displays, optical sensors, antennas, active and tunable photonic devices, and biomedicine. Abundant new opportunities exist for exploration.