Silicon photonics has gained great success mainly due to the promise of realizing compact devices in high volume through the low-cost foundry model. It is burgeoning from laboratory research into commercial production endeavors such as datacom and telecom. However, it is unsuitable for some emerging applications which require coverage across the visible or mid infrared (mid-IR) wavelength bands. It is desirable to introduce other wideband materials through heterogeneous integration, while keeping the integration compatible with wafer-scale fabrication processes on silicon substrates. We discuss the properties of silicon-family materials including silicon, silicon nitride, and silica, and other non-group IV materials such as metal oxide, tantalum pentoxide, lithium niobate, aluminum nitride, gallium nitride, barium titanate, piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate, and 2D materials. Typical examples of devices using these materials on silicon platform are provided. We then introduce a general fabrication method and low-loss process treatment for photonic devices on the silicon platform. From an applications viewpoint, we focus on three new areas requiring integration: sensing, optical comb generation, and quantum information processing. Finally, we conclude with perspectives on how new materials and integration methods can address previously unattainable wavelength bands while maintaining the advantages of silicon, thus showing great potential for future widespread applications.