In order to study the influence of nonlinear numerical simulation on the optimal control of the tunnel rock deformation parameters, the author proposes a numerical simulation study of the deformation characteristics of the layered rock tunnel, and determines the calculation model according to the thickness of the rock mass. The estimated thicknesses of the dolomite limestone surrounding the tunnel are 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 m. Select the vertical displacement to analyze as a result of the calculation. In order to study the influence of the structural slope on the tunnel stability, the thickness of the rock layer was 0.6 m, and the structural slopes of 5°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 85° were used for simulation calculations. During on-site construction, focus on monitoring the tunnel section deformation before the construction of the secondary lining. Every 10–20 m and at the change of the surrounding rock, the observation section of the surrounding convergence and vault settlement shall be arranged, according to the observed deformation, the peripheral displacement rate and the vault subsidence rate are calculated. The results show that the vertical displacement of the top of the tunnel is generally in a “V” shape, that is, the maximum settlement in the tunnel; when the layer thickness is 0.3 m, the maximum vertical displacement of the rock layer is 7.2 mm, and the total settlement in the lining support tunnel is 8.23 mm. When the layer thickness is 0.9 m, the vertical displacement of the rock layer is 5.14 mm, and the total settlement in the lining support tunnel is 5.22 mm. When the layer thickness is from 0.9 to 0.3 m, the maximum vertical displacement of the rock layer increases by 140%, and the settlement at the vault increases by 158%. The focus of tunnel support at this time is the two sides of the lining structure and the vault with large vertical settlement. For the YK51 + 032 section, the phenomenon of first decreasing and then increasing is due to the sudden mud on the surrounding YK51 + 040, which causes the short-term deformation to increase. Only the ZK49 + 356 sections at the entrance of the spider has very good deformation due to the thin overlying stratum, and other sections are similar, which shows the reliability of the calculation results.