The present review discusses the transmission risk factors of camel ( Camelus dromedarius ) brucellosis in the limits of domestic and wild interfaces and zoonotic threats. The median position of the dromedary’s life between wild and the domestic areas seems to increase the risks of brucellosis transmission, compared to other receptive domestic ruminants. In arid environments, canids, lagomorphs, rodents, and wild boars are potential reservoirs of Brucella spp. Dromedary camels raised according to a periurban breeding system are often in direct or indirect contact with wild animals, domestic animals, and humans. Constraints of brucellosis detection and control in wild animals, especially in developing countries, hamper preventing disease in camelids and related occupational categories. A total eradication of animal and human brucellosis, in developing countries, is faced by the difficulty of applying quarantine periods for suspected animals, the lack of reliable diagnostic tools, and the impossibility of controlling animals at the common grazing lands, livestock markets, and transboundary areas. In developing countries, the informal she-camel milk collection, the periurban camel breeding, and the shortage in the technological processing and the pasteurization of she-camel milk play a key role in brucellosis zoonotic transmission.Veterinarians should have more initiative in brucellosis control in both domestic and wildlife animals.