The “purity” of an organic compound typically refers, in practice, to an assignment of the mass fraction content of the primary organic component present in the material. The “purity” value of an organic primary calibrator material is the ultimate source of metrological traceability of any quantitative measurement of the content of that compound in a given matrix. The primary calibrator may consist of a Certified Reference Material (CRM) whose purity has been assigned by the CRM producer or a laboratory may choose to value-assign a material to the extent necessary for their intended application by using appropriately valid methods. This report provides an overview of the approach, performance and applicability of the principal methods used to determine organic purity including mass balance, quantitative NMR, thermal methods and direct-assay techniques. A statistical section reviews best practice for combination of data, value assignment as the upper limit values corresponding to 100 % purity are approached and how to report and propagate the standard uncertainty associated with the assigned values.