Beside traditional applications of refractory metals, e.g. in high temperature furnace construction, lighting or glass industry, one of the most important molybdenum products nowadays are large plates which are frequently used as targets for the sputtering of molybdenum layers in thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays. For the hot rolling of the sintered pre-material, the control over the recovery and recrystallization behavior is of particular importance. Molybdenum tends to a very recovery controlled behavior during hot deformation, at which the dislocations arrange into subcell boundaries instantaneously. These pronounced recovery processes seem to consume a large amount of the stored deformation energy for the actual recrystallization. On the other hand, recovery provides the future recrystallization nuclei. For a comprehensive characterization of these microstructural processes, electron microscopy appears to be the most proper means. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of electron channeling contrast imaging, electron back scatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy with regard to recovery and recrystallization processes in molybdenum. Furthermore, appropriate specimen preparation procedures for scanning and transmission electron microscopy are described.