Traditional metallography relies on the imaging of individual section planes. However, conclusions as to spatial shapes and microstructural arrangements can only be drawn to a limited extent. The idea to reconstruct three-dimensional microstructures from metallographic serial sections is therefore obvious and not at all new. However, the manual process of preparing a great number of individual sections and assembling them into image stacks is time-consuming and laborious and therefore constitutes an obstacle to frequent use. This is why the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, or BAM for short ( Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung ), is developing a robot-assisted 3D metallography system performing the tasks of preparation and image acquisition on a metallographic section fully automatically and repeatedly. Preparation includes grinding, polishing and optional etching of the section surface. Image acquisition is performed using a light optical microscope with autofocus at several magnification levels. The obtained image stack is then pre-processed, segmented and converted to a 3D model resembling a microtomographic image, but with a higher lateral resolution at large volumes. As opposed to tomographic techniques, it is possible to perform traditional chemical etching for contrasting. The integration of a scanning electron microscope is in the planning stages. Studies conducted so far have demonstrated the possibility of visualizing hot gas corrosion layers, gray cast irons and ceramic-based microelectronic structures (vias).