Marine mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) coatings show excellent hydrophilicity and substrate-independent adhesion ability, but low stability, especially in a harsh environment such as strong acid or strong base, significantly restricts their applications. In this work, we prepare a novel superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic coating based on a modified PDA. Diglycidyl resorcinol ether (DGRE) polyethyleneimine (PEI) and iron ions were incorporated into PDA to strengthen the cross-linking and coating durability. By using three chemically inert hydrophobic membranes, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(vinylidene fluoride), and polypropylene, as substrates, we showed that PDA/PEI/DGRE-coated membranes had a water contact angle (CA) of 0° and underwater oil CA above 157°, and their underwater oil SAs were <7°. The coating is durable against both physical and chemical damages including ultrasound and heat treatments, as well as acid/alkaline etching. After ultrasound treatment in water for 60 min, and heating treatment for 3 h, or acid/alkaline etching for 3 h, the coated PTFE membrane still showed water CAs of ∼0° in air and underwater oil CAs of ∼150°. The coated membranes can efficiently separate oil-in-water emulsions, even in strong acid and base environments. The water flux was above 1500 L m −2 h −1 , and the oil rejection was above 99%.