Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) involves the generation of species at electrode surfaces that then undergo electron-transfer reactions to form excited states that emit light. The ECL method is becoming an increasingly promising method in the life sciences, environmental analysis, and clinical analysis, owing to its good selectivity, high sensitivity, wide dynamic concentration response range, and potential and spatial controllability. Here, we give a mini-review on the advances of the ECL peptide-based bioassay using peptide as the molecular recognition element. First, a general history of ECL development is presented. Then, the general strategies of the ECL peptide-based bioassay are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the related progress in the last 5 years. Finally, we conclude with the future challenges and prospects in the development of the ECL peptide-based bioassay.