Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of porous organic crystal materials. Since Yaghi and co-workers reported the first COF material in 2005 (Côté, A. P.; Benin, A. I.; Ockwig, N. W.; O’Keeffe, M.; Matzger, A. J.; Yaghi, O. M. Science 2005 , 310 , 1166–1170), COFs have shown great potential and research value in many fields, for instance, gas storage and separation, photoelectric function, fluorescence sensor, catalysis, drug delivery, dye and pollutant adsorption, electronic devices and so on. In this review, the frequently used analysis and characterization methods for COFs are summarized, and two to three examples are selected for each analysis and characterization technique in order to explain it in detail. The selected examples of COFs, which either had a unique structure and feature, or were reported for the first time, can be conducive to understanding COFs and their analysis methods better and faster. The application of COFs in analysis and detection is also introduced in this review, including fluorescent analysis, separation and enrichment. The cooperation between analytical chemistry and COFs is fully reflected. This review is helpful for the person interested in this subject and provides some useful information on the characterization methods and the applications of COFs for the beginners.