Objective: To review the literature concerning the risks associated with the main xenobiotics contained in military ammunition and explosive residues and damage to human and environmental health. Methodology: Using “ammunition”, “military”, “environmental”, “health”, “explosive”, “metal”, “TNT”, “RDX”, “pollution”, and “contamination” as search terms, a large database, namely ISI Web of Knowledge SM and PubMed, was searched for studies on military ammunition and explosive residues from 1989 to 2010. Other sources used to conduct the search included the library of the Toxicology Laboratory of the Center for Workers’ Health and Human Ecology (CESTEH) at the National School of Public Health. Results: In total, 15 different combinations were used with the search words above and 708 papers were found. Among them, 76 papers concerned this review. More than 12 references of interest were discovered in the library of the CESTEH. The results were organized into metals, dinitrotoluene, trinitrotoluene (TNT), and royal demolition explosive (RDX), showing their main uses, occurrence in the environment, the current toxic effects to human and environmental health, and remediation possibilities. Conclusion : Because military activities can cause the acute and chronic exposure of human beings, the public administration must aim politics towards suitable environmental management.