Most civilization disorders have a complex etiology, involving factors such as genetics, lifestyle, and environmental pollution (EP) due to different chemicals. Among harmful chemicals, the major ones include particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, pesticides, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans, some food additives, hormones, and antibiotics. In fact, potential pollutants are countless and most of them have never been evaluated in terms of their toxicity and health risks, especially that new chemicals emerge all the time due to interactions between the existing ones. It is almost impossible to determine the effects of these new compounds on health. Previous studies have revealed a broad spectrum of diseases related to pollution. EP has been associated with an increased incidence of some malignancies, an increased rate of all-cause mortality, development or exacerbation of cardiovascular diseases, recurrent infections, impairment of intellectual and psychomotor development in children, development of type 2 diabetes, respiratory and immune system diseases, and also brain degenerative disorders. EP is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, generating high health care costs. Global pollution questions the common recommendation to eat vegetables, fruit, and fish regularly as part of a healthy diet, if they do not have ecological certification. Research in the fields of ecology, biology, and toxicology is needed to determine which environmental contaminants are the most hazardous to wildlife and humans and at what levels. Only an interdisciplinary cooperation and measures to raise public awareness could help improve environmental protection.