Organophosphate (OP) pesticides, including chlorpyrifos (CPF), can alter metabolic hemostasis. The current systematic study investigated blood glucose, lipid profiles, and body weight alterations in rodents and fish exposed to CPF. The systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Guidelines, querying online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus and also search engine including Google Scholar, through January 2021. Studies on rodent and fish exposed to CPF assessing metabolic functions were selected. All studies were in the English language, with other languages being excluded from the review. Two investigators independently assessed each of the articles. The first author’s name, publication date, animal model, age, sample size, gender, dose, duration, and route of exposure and outcomes were extracted from each publication. The present review summarizes findings from 61 publications on glycemic, lipid profile, insulin, and body weight changes in rodents and fish exposed to CPF exposure. Most of the studies reported hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and decreased insulin levels and body weight following exposure to CPF. Additionally, we confirmed that the CPF-induced metabolic alterations were both dose- and time-dependent. Our findings support an association between CPF exposure and metabolic diseases. However, more studies are needed to identify the metabolic-disrupting effects of CPF and their underlying mechanisms.