Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the most serious complication of spinal injury, often leading to severe dysfunction of the limbs below the injured segment. Conventional therapy approaches are becoming less and less effective, and gene therapy is a new research direction by now. Methods The Sprague-Dawley rats were haphazardly assigned to two groups, namely sham group and SCI model group, and lncRNA H19 and miR-370-3p levels were investigated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Correlation between lncRNA H19 and miR-370-3p was ascertained by luciferase report assay and RT-qPCR. After transfection with si-H19, miR-370-3p inhibitor, negative controls (NC), or both, primary spinal neurons were subjected to the simulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inducing in vitro model of SCI. Cell viability, apoptotic rate, caspase-3 activity, Bax and Bcl-2 protein, ROS generation, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 protein, as well as IκBα and p65 phosphorylation ratio were evaluated adopting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, ROS generation, and western blot assays, thereby searching for the specific action mechanism on LPS-induced spinal never injury. Results SCI resulted in lncRNA H19 higher expression and miR-370-3p lower expression. LPS simulation raised a series of cellular biological changes, such as decreased viability, promoted apoptosis, generated ROS, and released inflammatory factors. lncRNA H19 inhibition reversed above LPS-induced changes. Besides, as the downstream target of lncRNA H19, miR-370-3p was oppositely regulated by lncRNA H19. The above biological changes induced by lncRNA H19 inhibition were reversed by miR-370-3p upregulation. Moreover, lncRNA H19 inhibition could block NF-κB pathway through miR-370-3p upregulation. Conclusion Inhibition of lncRNA H19/miR-370-3p mitigated spinal neuron apoptosis in an in vitro model of SCI. This provided the possibility for clinical use of gene therapy.