The temperature-dependent mechanical and ultrasonic properties of barium, calcium, and lead polonides (BaPo, CaPo, and PbPo) were investigated in the temperature range 100–300 K. The second- and third-order elastic constants (SOECs and TOECs) were computed using Coulomb and Born-Mayer potential and these in turn have been used to estimate other secondary elastic properties such as strength, anisotropy, microhardness, etc. The theoretical approach followed the prediction that BaPo, CaPo, and PbPo are brittle in nature. PbPo is found to be the hardest amongst the chosen compounds. Further the SOECs and TOECs are applied to determine ultrasonic velocities, Debye temperature, and acoustic coupling constants along <100>, <110>, and <111> orientations at room temperature. Additionally thermal conductivity has been computed using Morelli and Slack’s approach along different crystallographic directions at room temperature. Finally ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon–phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation mechanisms has been computed for BaPo, CaPo, and PbPo. The behaviour of these compounds is similar to that of semi-metals with thermal relaxation time of the order 10 −11 s. The present computation study is reasonably in agreement with the available theoretical data for the similar type of materials.