A novel liquid refractive index sensor based on the connected single-mode fiber (SMF), no-core fiber (NCF), four-core fiber (FCF), and silver mirror (SM) to form an SMF–NCF–FCF–SM Michelson probe structure is proposed and fabricated. The change of light field in the probe structure has been simulated by the light-beam propagation method. The theoretical results show that light is excited in the NCF and couples into the cores and cladding of FCF at the junction of NCF and FCF. The interference fringes are generated between the cladding modes and core modes of FCF. The sensitivities of the probe in NaCl, sucrose, and glycerol are 171.75 dB/RIU, 121.41 dB/RIU, and 207.50 dB/RIU, respectively. The temperature sensitivity is 0.05 nm/°C, and the intensity change of temperature (≤0.046 dB/°C) is very small and has little effect on the liquid refractive index. Thus, the cross-sensitivity of temperature for the liquid refractive index can be removed. The proposed probe structure has the advantages of easy fabrication, good stability, and linear response, having potential application in the liquid refractive index monitoring environments.