The development of new prostate cancer protein receptor cytochrome P450 17A1 inhibitors offers the possibility of generating structures of increased potency. To this end, the chalcone analogs 7 and 8 were prepared from treatment of methyl 3 - oxo-3 H -benzocoumarin-2-carboxylate ( 4 ) with aryl aldehydes. Treatment of 7 and 8 with three anti-inflammatory drugs, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen and ibuprofen, in the presence of POCl 3 /DMAP gave the ester analogs 9 – 12 . Analogously, treatment of ethyl 3 - oxo-3 H -benzocoumarin-2-carboxylate ( 15 ), prepared previously from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde ( 13 ) and dimethylmalonate ( 14 ), with various arylamines: 4-bromoaniline, 2-amino-6-methylpyridine, amino-antipyrine and 2-amino-5-nitrothiazole, in the presence of potassium tert -butoxide gave the benzocoumarine-3-arylamide analogs. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of 9 – 12 and 16 – 19 were evaluated against human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) and normal human liver epithelia (WRL-68) by MTT assay. Compounds 10 and 17 were the most active cytotoxic agents among the series against PC-3 cells with IC 50 values of 71.35 and 78.25 μg mL –1 with SI values of 3.0 and 4.2, respectively (calculated from the cytotoxicity effects of 10 and 17 on the normal human liver epithelia [WRL-68]). Furthermore, compounds 11 and 12 were tested against breast cancer (HER2 cell lines), prostate cancer (DU-135 cell lines) and MCF-7 but were inactive. Molecular docking studies between the protein receptor CYPP450 17A1 and compounds 10 and 17 revealed that these compounds primarily form hydrophobic interactions with the receptor.