1. “Flavanone synthase” was isolated from anthers of Tulipa cv. “Apeldoorn” and partially purified by (NH 4 ) 2SO 4 fractionation, gel chromatography and isoelectric focussing. The enzyme preparation was free of chalcone-flavanone isomerase activity. 2. p-Coumaroyl-CoA, caffeoyl-CoA and feruloyl-CoA were found to be efficient substrates of the synthase. The products formed were naringenin (5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavanone), eriodictyol (5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavanone) and homoeriodictyol (5,7,4′-trihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone), respectively. Addition of thiol reagents at concentrations exceeding 10 -3 м caused inhibition of the enzyme. “ Release products” , however, were not detectable. Although exclusively chalcones accumulate in the tulip anther, only flavanones but no chalcones were detectable in our in vitro system. 3. The apparent K m values for p-coumaroyl-CoA, caffeoyl-CoA and feruloyl-CoA were 1 .7× 10 -6 м, 1.6× 10 -6 м and 2 .5 ×10 -6 м, respectively. Similar data were observed for malonyl- CoA. 4. No cofactors are required for the synthase reaction. The enzyme is strongly inhibited by the reaction products flavanone and coenzyme A . Maximum enzyme activity was found at pH 8.0 and 30 °. The molecular weight was approx. 55,000. 5. Synthase activity develops in early postmeiotic stages of microsporogenesis. Highest specific activities of the enzyme coincide with a maximum in chalcone accumulation within the anthers. 6. The contents of anthers was separated into two fractions, pollen and tapetum. Highest specific activities were observed with tapetum fractions, while pollen fractions exhibited only very low activities. The high enzyme activity in the tapetum fraction points to the important role of the tapetum in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in the loculus of anthers.