New results on the phytochemistry of Nephroma, a genus of the lichen family Peltigeraceae are presented. Further eight species occuring in South America have been studied. Including earlier results, nine groupings of secondary metabolites within the genus are defined: The phytochemistry of pattern I is represented by N. analogicum containing ergochromes (ergochrome AB and AA), hitherto found only in members of the Parmeliaceae; pattern II: tenuiorin, methylgyrophorate, gyrophoric acid, 4-O-methyl gyrophoric acid, methylevernate, lecanoric acid, zeorin and usnic acid (represented by N. gyelnikii and N. pseudoparile); pattern III: Zeorin, 15α-acetoxy-22- hydroxyhopane and 15α-22-dihydroxyhopane (represented by N. parile and N. expallidum); pattern IV: stictic, constictic, hypostictic, hyposalazinic and usnic acid, zeorin and one unknown depsidone [PQ 4] (represented by N. antarcticum and N. lobuligerum); pattern V: no lichen metabolites (represented by N. resupinatum and N. plumbeum); pattern VI: perlatolic, stenosporic and glomelliferic acid, zeorin and five further metabolites being most likely O-methyl-derivatives of stenosporic and perlatolic acid (represented by N. cellulosum and N. lepidophyllum); pattern VII: usnic acid and phenarctin, including three further unknown depsides (represented by N. microphyllum and N. kuehnemanii); pattern VIII: usnic acid, phenarctin, nephroarctin and zeorin (represented by N. arcticum); pattern IX: usnic acid and 6oc-7β-22-trihydroxyhopane (represented by N. chubutense). A considerable variation in accessory compounds exists in pattern II, IV and VI which does not correlate with the variation in morphological characters. N. patagonicum Kremp. is placed to synonymy with N. analogicum Nyl.