Many herbicides inhibit chloroplast electron transport by interfering with a proteinaceous component of the Q в complex located in the appressed granal membrane. Certain of these herbicides, designated inhibitory uncouplers, also interfere with photophosphorylation and affect other chloroplast-mediated responses, some of which involve components located in the nonappressed granal membrane. The inhibitory uncouplers can be divided into dinoseb (phenolic) types which contain dissociable protons and dicryl (acylanilide) types which are nonionic. The dinoseb types can function as protonophores and shuttle protons across the thylakoid membrane at low concentrations and can alter the integrity of semipermeable membranes at higher concentrations. However, the dicryl types only alter the integrity of the membranes. The inhibitory uncouplers, but not the DCMU-types of electron transport inhibitors: stimulated electron trans- port from DPIPH 2 to methyl viologen; inhibited valifiomycin-induced swelling of intact chloroplasts; increased the permeability of the chloroplast envelope to K + in the absence of an ionophore; prevented energization of the thylakoid membrane by PS I; and increased the permeability of phosphatidyl choline liposomes to protons. Chlorination response patterns obtained with isomers of N-phenyl-2-methylpentanamides in the above reactions, in general, were similar for interference with the Q в complex, i.e., in all assays, dichlorination in the 3,4 or 3,5 positions was associated with maximum inhibitory potency, whereas substitution in an ortho position decreased inhibitory activity. With a series of 1-alkyl-3-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ureas, maximum inhibition of electron transport was obtained with the butyl derivative, whereas maximum responses for uncoupling and membrane disturbances were obtained with the hexyl or octyl derivatives. Some of the interferences produced by inhibitory uncouplers may result from interactions with the lipoidal components of chloroplast membranes.